"Home Buyer's and Seller's Guide to Radon"
Office of Air and Radiation (OAR)Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (ORIA) (6609J)
402-K-00-008, July 2000
you are buying a home or selling your home, have it tested for radon.
a new home, ask if radon-resistant construction features were used and if the home has been tested.
- Fix the home if the radon level is 4 picoCuries per liter (pCi/L) or higher.
Radon levels less than 4 pCi/L still pose a risk, and in many cases, may be reduced.
Take steps to prevent device interference when conducting a radon test.
Radon is estimated to cause thousands of lung cancer deaths
in the U.S. each year.
* Radon is estimated to cause about 21,000 lung cancer deaths per year, according
to EPA's 2003 Assessment of Risks from Radon in Homes (EPA 402-R-03-003). The numbers of deaths from other causes
are taken from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 1999-2001 National Center for Injury Prevention and Control
Report and 2002 National Safety Council Reports.
This Guide answers important questions about radon and lung cancer risk. It also answers questions
about testing and fixing for anyone buying or selling a home.
Radon Is a Cancer-Causing, Radioactive Gas
You cannot see, smell, or taste radon. But it still may be a problem in your home. When you breathe air containing radon,
you increase your risk of getting lung cancer. In fact, the Surgeon General of the United States has warned that radon
is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States today. If you smoke and your home has high radon levels, your risk
of lung cancer is especially high.
| National Academy of Sciences Report on Radon
In February 1998, the
National Academy of Sciences (NAS) released its report on radon and lung cancer, The Health Effects of Exposure to Indoor
Radon (the BEIR VI report). The NAS is an independent, non-governmental, scientific organization. The NAS
estimates that radon causes between 15,000 and 22,000 lung cancer deaths each year in the United States and that 12 percent
of all lung cancer deaths are linked to radon. The BEIR VI Committee (Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation) concluded
that after smoking, radon is the second leading cause of death due to lung cancer in the United States.
You Should Test for Radon
Testing is the only way to find out your home's radon levels. EPA and the Surgeon General
recommend testing all homes below the third floor for radon.You
Can Fix a Radon Problem
If you find that you
have high radon levels, there are ways to fix a radon problem. Even very high levels can be reduced to acceptable levels.If You Are Selling a Home...
EPA recommends that you test your home before putting it on the market and, if necessary, lower
your radon levels. Save the test results and all information you have about steps that were taken to fix any problems. This
could be a positive selling point.
If You Are Buying a Home...
EPA recommends that you know what the indoor radon level is in any home you
consider buying. Ask the seller for their radon test results. If the home has a radon-reduction system, ask the
seller for information they have about the system.1. Why Do You Need to Test for Radon?
If the home has not
yet been tested, you should have the housed tested.
If you are having a new home built, there are features that can be incorporated into your home during construction to reduce
The radon testing guidelines in this Guide have been developed specifically to deal
with the time-sensitive nature of home purchases and sales, and the potential for radon device interference. These guidelines
are slightly different from the guidelines in other EPA publications which provide radon testing and reduction information
This Guide recommends three short-term testing options for real estate transactions.
EPA also recommends testing a home in the lowest level which is currently suitable for occupancy, since a buyer may choose
to live in a lower area of the home than that used by the seller.
a. Radon Has Been Found In Homes All Over the U.S.
Radon is a radioactive
gas that has been found in homes all over the United States. It comes from the natural breakdown of uranium in soil, rock
and water and gets into the air you breathe. Radon typically moves up through the ground to the air above and into your home
through cracks and other holes in the foundation. Radon can also enter your home through well water. Your home can trap
Any home can have a radon problem. This means new and old homes, well-sealed and drafty homes, and homes with or without basements.
In fact, you and your family are most likely to get your greatest radiation exposure at home. That is where you spend most
of your time.
Nearly 1 out of every 15 homes in the United States is estimated to have an elevated radon level (4 pCi/L or more).
Elevated levels of radon gas have been found in homes in your state. Contact your state radon office for information about
radon in your area.b. EPA and the Surgeon General
Recommend That You Test Your Home
Testing is the only way to know if you and your family are at risk from radon. EPA and the Surgeon General
recommend testing all homes below the third floor for radon.
You cannot predict radon levels based on state, local, and neighborhood
radon measurements. Do not rely on radon test results taken in other homes in the neighborhood to estimate the radon
level in your home. Homes which are next to each other can have different radon levels. Testing is the only way
to find out what your home's radon level is.
In some areas, companies may offer different types of radon service agreements.
Some agreements let you pay a one-time fee that covers both testing and radon mitigation, if needed. Contact your state
radon office to find out if these are available in your state.
Surgeon General of the United States Health Advisory
"Indoor radon gas is a national health problem. Radon causes thousands of deaths each year.
Millions of homes have elevated radon levels. Most homes should be tested for radon. When elevated levels are confirmed,
the problem should be corrected."
2. I'm Selling a Home. What Should I Do?
a. If Your Home Has Already Been Tested for Radon...
If you are thinking of selling your home and
you have already tested your home for radon, review the Radon Testing Checklist to make sure that the test was done correctly. If so,
provide your test results to the buyer.b. If Your Home Has Not Yet Been Tested for Radon...
No matter what kind of test you took,
a potential buyer may ask for a new test especially if:
A buyer may also ask for a new test if your state or local government requires disclosure of radon
information to buyers.
- The Radon Testing Checklist
items were not met;
- The last test is not recent, e.g., within two years;
- You have renovated or altered your home since you tested; or
- The buyer plans to live in
a lower level of the house than was tested, such as a basement suitable for occupancy but not currently lived in.
Have a test taken as soon as possible. If you can, test your home before
putting it on the market. You should test in the lowest level of the home which is suitable for occupancy. This means
testing in the lowest level that you currently live in or a lower level not currently used, but which a buyer could use for
living space without renovations.
The radon test result is important information about your home's
radon level. Some states require radon measurement testers to follow a specific testing protocol. If you do the
test yourself, you should carefully follow the testing protocol for your area or EPA's Radon Testing Checklist.
If you hire a contractor to test your residence, protect yourself by hiring a qualified individual or company.
You can determine a service provider's qualifications to perform radon measurements or to mitigate your home
in several ways. Check with your state radon office. Many states require radon professionals to be licensed, certified, or registered.
Most states can provide you with a list of knowledgeable radon service providers doing business in the state. In states
that don't regulate radon services, ask the contractor if they hold a professional proficiency or certification credential.
Such programs usually
provide members with a photo-ID card, which indicates their qualification(s) and its expiration date. If in doubt, you
should check with their credentialing organization. Alternatively, ask the contractor if they've successfully completed formal
for testing or mitigation, e.g., a course in radon measurement or radon mitigation.
3. I'm Buying a Home. What Should I Do?
If the Home Has Already Been Tested for Radon...
If you are thinking of buying a home, you may decide
to accept an earlier test result from the seller, or ask the seller for a new test to be conducted by a qualified radon
tester. Before you accept the seller's test, you should determine:
- The results of previous testing;
- Who conducted the previous test:
the homeowner, a radon professional, or some other person;
- Where in the home the previous
test was taken, especially if you may plan to live in a lower level of the home. For example, the test may have been
taken on the first floor. However, if you want to use the basement as living space, test there; and
- What, if any, structural changes, alterations, or changes in the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)
system have been made to the house since the test was done. Such changes may affect radon levels.
If you accept the seller's test, make sure that the test followed the Radon Testing Checklist.b. If the Home Has Not Yet Been Tested for Radon...
If you decide that a new test is needed, discuss it with the seller as soon as possible.
If you decide to use a qualified radon tester, contact your state radon office to obtain a copy of their approved list of
radon testing companies.
Make sure that a radon test is done as soon as possible. Consider including
provisions in the contract specifying:
- Where the test will be located;
- Who should conduct the test;
- How the seller and the buyer will share the test results and test costs (if necessary); and
- When radon mitigation measures will be taken and who will pay for them.
Make sure that the test is done in the lowest level of the home suitable for occupancy. This means
the lowest level that you are going to use as living space which is finished or does not require renovations prior to use. A state or local radon official
or qualified radon tester can help you make some of these decisions.4.
I'm Buying or Building a New Home. How Can I Protect My Family?
If you decide to finish or renovate an unfinished area of the home in the future, a radon test should be taken before starting
the project and after the project is finished. Generally, it is less expensive to install a radon-reduction system before
(or during) renovations rather than afterwards.
a. Why Should I Buy a Radon-Resistant
Radon-resistant techniques work.
When installed properly and completely, these simple and inexpensive passive techniques can help to reduce radon levels.
In addition, installing them at the time of construction makes it easier to reduce radon levels further if the passive techniques
don't reduce radon levels below 4 pCi/L. Radon-resistant techniques may also help to lower moisture levels and those
of other soil-gases. Radon-resistant techniques: b. What
Are Radon-Resistant Features?
Easy: Even if built to be radon-resistant, every new home should be tested for radon after occupancy. If you have
a test result of 4 pCi/L or more, a vent fan can easily be added to the passive system to make it an active system and further
reduce radon levels. In a new home, the cost to install passive radon-resistant features during construction is usually between $350 and
$500. In some areas, the cost may be as low as $100. A qualified mitigator will charge about $300 to add a vent
fan to a passive system, making it an active system and further reducing radon levels. In an existing home, it usually costs between $800 and $2,500
to install a radon mitigation system.
Are Cost-Effective: Building radon-resistant
features into the house during construction is easier and cheaper than fixing a radon problem from scratch later. Let
your builder know that radon-resistant features are easy to install using common building materials.
Save Money: When installed properly and
completely, radon-resistant techniques can also make your home more energy efficient and help you save on your energy costs.
(features) may vary for different foundations and site requirements. If you're having a house built, you can learn
about EPA's Model Standards (and architectural drawings) and explain the techniques to your builder. If your new
house was built (or will be built) to be radon-resistant, it will include these basic elements:5. How Can I Get Reliable Radon Test Results?
- Gas-Permeable Layer: This layer is placed beneath the slab or flooring system to allow the soil gas
to move freely underneath the house. In many cases, the material used is a 4-inch layer of clean gravel. This
gas-permeable layer is used only in homes with basement and slab-on-grade foundations; it is not used in homes with crawlspace
- Plastic Sheeting: Plastic sheeting is placed on top of the gas-permeable layer
and under the slab to help prevent the soil gas from entering the home. In crawl spaces, the sheeting (with seams sealed)
is placed directly over the crawlspace floor.
- Sealing and Caulking:
below-grade openings in the foundation and walls are sealed to reduce soil gas entry into the home.
- Vent Pipe: A 3- or 4-inch PVC pipe (or other gas-tight pipe) runs from the gas-permeable layer through
the house to the roof, to safely vent radon and other soil gases to the outside.
Junction Boxes: An electrical junction box is included in the attic to make the wiring and installation of a vent fan easier.
For example, you decide to activate the passive system because your test result showed an elevated radon level (4 pCi/L or
more). A separate junction box is placed in the living space to power the vent fan alarm. An alarm is installed
along with the vent fan to indicate when the vent fan is not operating properly.
Radon testing is easy and the only way to find out if you have a radon problem in your home.a. Types of Radon Devices
Since you cannot see or smell radon, special equipment is needed to detect it. When you're
ready to test your home, you can order a radon test kit by mail from a qualified radon measurement services provider or laboratory.
You can also hire a qualified radon tester, very often a home inspector, who will use a radon device(s) suitable to your situation.
The most common types of radon testing devices are listed below. As new testing devices are developed, you may want
to check with your state radon office before you test to get the most up-to-date information.b. General Information for All Devices
Passive radon testing devices do not need power to function. These include charcoal canisters, alpha-track
detectors, charcoal liquid scintillation devices, and electret ion chamber detectors which are available in hardware, drug, and other stores;
they can also be ordered by mail or phone. These devices are exposed to the air in the home for a specified period of
time and then sent to a laboratory for analysis. Both short-term and long-term passive devices are generally inexpensive.
Some of these devices may have features that offer more resistance to test interference or disturbance than other passive
devices. Qualified radon testers may use any of these devices to measure the home's radon level.
Active radon testing devices require power to function. These include continuous radon monitors and continuous
working level monitors. They continuously measure and record the amount of radon or its decay products in the air. Many
of these devices provide a report of this information which can reveal any unusual or abnormal swings in the radon level during
the test period. A qualified tester can explain this report to you. In addition, some of these devices are specifically
designed to deter and detect test interference. Some technically advanced active devices offer anti-interference features.
Although these tests may cost more, they may ensure a more reliable result.
A state or local radon official can explain the differences between devices and recommend the ones which are most appropriate
for your needs and expected testing conditions.
Make sure to use a radon
measurement device from a qualified laboratory. Certain precautions should be followed to avoid interference during
the test period. See the Radon Testing Checklist for more information on how to get a reliable test result.
|Radon Test Device Placement
EPA recommends that testing device(s)
be placed in the lowest level of the home suitable for occupancy. This means testing in the lowest level (such as a basement),
which a buyer could use for living space without renovations. The test should be conducted in a room to be used regularly
(like a family room, living room, playroom, den or bedroom); do not test in a kitchen, bathroom, laundry room or hallway.
Usually, the buyer decides where to locate the radon test, based on their expected use of the home. A buyer and seller
should explicitly discuss and agree on the test location to avoid any misunderstanding. Their decision should be clearly
communicated to the person performing the test.
c. Preventing or Detecting Test Interference
There is a potential for test interference in real estate transactions. There are several ways to prevent or detect
- Use a test device that frequently records radon or decay
product levels to detect unusual swings;
- Employ a motion detector to determine whether
the test device has been moved or testing conditions have changed;
- Use a proximity
detector to reveal the presence of people in the room which may correlate to possible changes in radon levels during the test;
- Record the barometric pressure to identify weather conditions which may have affected
- Record the temperature record to help assess whether doors and
windows have been opened;
- Apply tamper-proof seals to windows to ensure closed house
- Have the seller/occupant sign a non-interference agreement.
Home buyers and sellers should consult a qualified radon test provider
about the use of these precautions.d. Length of Time to Test
There Are Two General Ways To Test Your Home for Radon:
Because radon levels vary from day to day and
season to season, a short-term test is less likely than a long-term test to tell you your year-round average radon level.
However, if you need results quickly, a short-term test may be used to decide whether to fix the home.
way to test is with short-term tests. Short-term tests remain in your home from two days to 90 days, depending on the device.
There are two groups of devices which are more commonly used for short-term testing. The passive device group includes alpha track detectors, charcoal
canisters, charcoal liquid scintillation detectors, and electret ion chambers. The active device group consists of different types of continuous monitors.
Whether you test for radon
yourself or hire a state-certified tester or a privately certified tester, all radon tests should be taken for a minimum of
48 hours. A longer period of testing is required for some devices.
Testing e. Doing a Short-Term Test...
Long-term tests remain in your home for more than 90
are commonly used for
this type of testing. A long-term test will give you a reading that is more likely to tell you your home's year-round
average radon level than a short-term test. If time permits (more than 90 days) long-term tests can be used to confirm initial
short-term results. When long-term test results are 4 pCi/L or higher, EPA recommends fixing the home.
If you are testing in a real estate transaction and you need results quickly, any of the following three options for short-term
Tests are acceptable in determining whether the home should be fixed. Any real estate test for radon should include steps
to prevent or detect device interference with the test device.
a Short-Term Testing Option...
There are trade-offs among the short-term
testing options. Two tests taken at the same time (simultaneous) would improve the precision of this radon test.
One test followed by another test (sequential) would most likely give a better representation of the seasonal average.
Both active and passive devices may have features which help to prevent test interference. Your state radon office can
help you decide which option is best.
Take two short-term tests at the same time in the same location for at least 48
Take an initial short-term test for at least 48 hours. Immediately upon completing the first
test, do a second test using an identical device in the same location as the first test.
Test the home with a continuous monitor
for at least 48 hours.
Fix the home if the average of two tests is 4 pCi/L or more.
Fix the home if the average of the two tests is 4 pCi/L or more.
Fix the home if the average radon level
is 4 pCi/L or more.
f. Using Testing Devices Properly for Reliable Results
If You Do the Test Yourself
When you are taking a short-term test, close windows and doors and keep them closed, except
for normal entry and exit. If you are taking a short-term test lasting less than four days, be sure to:
- Close your windows and outside doors at least 12 hours before beginning the test;
- Do not conduct short-term tests lasting less than four days during severe storms
or periods of high winds;
- Follow the testing instructions and record the start time
- Place the test device at least 20 inches above the floor in a location
where it will not be disturbed and where it will be away from drafts, high heat, high humidity, and exterior walls;
- Leave the test kit in place for as long as the test instructions say; and
- Once you have
finished the test, record the stop time and date, reseal the package and return it immediately to the lab specified on the
package for analysis.
You should receive your test results within
a few weeks. If you need results quickly, you should find out how long results will take and, if necessary, request expedited
If You Hire a Qualified Radon Tester
In many cases, home buyers and sellers may decide to have the radon test done by
a qualified radon tester who knows the proper conditions, test devices, and guidelines for obtaining a reliable radon test
result. They can also:
- Evaluate the home and recommend a testing
approach designed to make sure you get reliable results;
- Explain how proper conditions
can be maintained during the radon test;
- Emphasize to occupants of a home that a
reliable test result depends on their cooperation. Interference with, or disturbance of, the test or closed-house conditions
will invalidate the test result;
- Analyze the data and report measurement results; and
- Provide an independent test.
radon office may also have information about qualified radon testers certification requirements.g. Interpreting Radon Test Results
indoor radon level is estimated to be about 1.3 pCi/L; roughly 0.4 pCi/L of radon is normally found in the outside air. The
U.S. Congress has set a long-term goal that indoor radon levels be no more than outdoor levels. While this goal is not yet
technologically achievable for all homes, radon levels in many homes can be reduced to 2 pCi/L or below.
Radon Test Results Reported in Two Ways
Your radon test results may be reported in either picoCuries
per liter of air (pCi/L) or working levels (WL). If your test result is in pCi/L, EPA recommends you fix your home if your
radon level is 4 pCi/L or higher. If the test result is in WL, EPA recommends you fix the home if the working level is 0.02
WL or higher. Some states require WL results to be converted to pCi/L to minimize confusion.
Sometimes short-term tests are less definitive about whether the home is
at or above 4 pCi/L; particularly when the results are close to 4 pCi/L. For example, if the average of two short-term tests
is 4.1 pCi/L, there is about a 50% chance that the year-round average is somewhat below 4 pCi/L.
However, EPA believes that any radon exposure carries some risk; no level of radon is safe. Even
radon levels below 4 pCi/L pose some risk. You can reduce your risk of lung cancer by lowering your radon level.
As with other environmental pollutants, there is some uncertainty about the
magnitude of radon health risks. However, we know more about radon risks than risks from most other cancer-causing substances.
This is because estimates of radon risks are based on data from human studies (underground miners). Additional studies on
more typical populations are under way.
Your radon measurement will give you an
idea of your risk of getting lung cancer from radon. Your chances of getting lung cancer from radon depend mostly on:
- The amount
of time you spend in your home; and
- Whether you are a smoker or have ever smoked.
Smoking combined with radon is an especially serious
health risk. If you smoke or are a former smoker, the presence of radon greatly increases your risk of lung cancer. If you
stop smoking now and lower the radon level in your house, you will reduce your lung cancer risk.Radon Testing Checklist
Based on information contained in the National Academy of Sciences 1998 report, The Health
Effects of Exposure to Indoor Radon, your radon risk may be somewhat higher than shown; especially if you have never
smoked. It's never too late to reduce your risk to lung cancer. Don't wait to test and fix a radon problem.
If you are a smoker, stop smoking.
For reliable test results, follow this Radon Testing Checklist carefully. Testing for radon is not complicated.
Improper testing may yield inaccurate results and require another test. Disturbing or interfering with the test device,
or with closed-house conditions, may invalidate the test results and is illegal in some states. If the seller or qualified
tester cannot confirm that all items have been completed, take another test.
Conducting a Radon Test:
- Notify the occupants of the importance
of proper testing conditions. Give the occupants written instructions or a copy of this Guide and explain the directions carefully.
- Conduct the radon test for a minimum of 48 hours; some test devices have
a minimum exposure time greater than 48 hours.
- When doing a short-term test
ranging from 2-4 days, it is important to maintain closed-house conditions for at least 12 hours before the beginning of the
test and during the entire test period.
- When doing a short-term test
ranging from 4-7 days, EPA recommends that closed-house conditions be maintained.
- If you conduct the test yourself, use a qualified radon measurement device and follow the laboratory's instructions.
Your state may be able to provide you with a list of do-it-yourself test devices available from qualified laboratories.
- If you hire someone to do the test, hire only a qualified individual.
Some states issue photo identification (ID) cards; ask to see it. The tester's ID number, if available, should be
included or noted in the test report.
- The test should include method(s)
to prevent or detect interference with testing conditions or with the testing device itself.
- If the house has an active radon-reduction system, make sure the vent fan is operating properly. If the fan
is not operating properly, have it (or ask to have it) repaired and then test.
Closed-house conditions means keeping all windows closed, keeping
doors closed except for normal entry and exit, and not operating fans or other machines which bring in air from outside.
Fans that are part of a radon-reduction system or small exhaust fans operating for only short periods of time may run during
During a Radon Test:
- Maintain closed-house
conditions during he entire time of a short term test, especially for tests shorter than one week in length.
- Operate the home's heating and cooling systems normally during the test. For tests lasting less than one week,
operate only air-conditioning units which recirculate interior air.
- Do not disturb
the test device at any time during the test.
- If a radon-reduction system is in place,
make sure the system is working properly and will be in operation during the entire radon test.
After a Radon Test:
6. What Should I Do If the Radon Level is High?
- If you conduct the test yourself,
be sure to promptly return the test device to the laboratory. Be sure to complete the required information, including
start and stop times, test location, etc.
- If an elevated level is found, fix the
home. Contact a qualified radon-reduction contractor about lowering the radon level. EPA recommends that you fix the
home when the radon level is 4 pCi/L or more.
- Be sure that you or the radon tester can
demonstrate or provide information to ensure that the testing conditions were not violated during the testing period.
a. High Radon Levels Can be Reduced
EPA recommends that you take action to reduce your home's indoor radon
levels if your radon test result is 4 pCi/L or higher. It is better to correct a radon problem before placing your home on
the market because then you have more time to address a radon problem. b. How To Lower The Radon Level
In Your Home
If elevated levels are found during the real estate transaction, the buyer and seller should discuss
the timing and costs of the radon reduction. The cost of making repairs to reduce radon levels depends on how your home
was built and other factors. Most homes can be fixed for about the same cost as other common home repairs, like painting or
having a new hot water heater installed. The average cost for a contractor to lower radon levels in a home can range from
$800 to about $2,500.
A variety of methods can be used to reduce radon in homes. Sealing cracks
and other openings in the foundation is a basic part of most approaches to radon reduction. EPA does not recommend
the use of
sealing alone to
limit radon entry. Sealing alone has not been shown to lower radon levels significantly or consistently.
In most cases, a system with a vent pipe(s) and fan(s) is used to reduce radon.
These "sub-slab depressurization" systems do not require major changes to your home. Similar systems can also be
installed in homes with crawl space. These systems prevent radon gas from entering the home from below the concrete
floor and from outside the foundation. Radon mitigation contractors may use other methods that may also work in your
home. The right system depends on the design of your home and other factors.
Techniques for reducing radon are discussed in EPA's "Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction." As with
any other household appliance, there are costs associated with the operation of the radon-reduction system.
Radon and home renovations
If you are planning any major renovations, such as
converting an unfinished basement area into living space, it is especially important to test the area for radon before you
test results indicate an elevated radon level, radon-resistant techniques can be inexpensively included as part of the renovation.
Major renovations can change the level of radon in any home. Test again after the work is completed.
You should also test your home again after it is fixed to be sure that radon
levels have been reduced. If your living patterns change and you begin occupying a lower level of your home (such as a basement)
you should retest your home on that level. In addition, it is a good idea to retest your home sometime in the future to be
sure radon levels remain low.
c. Selecting a Radon-Reduction
Select a qualified radon-reduction contractor to reduce the radon levels
in your home. Any mitigation measures taken or system installed in your home must conform to your state's regulations.
In states without regulations covering mitigation, the system should conform to EPA's Radon Mitigation Standards.
EPA recommends that the mitigation contractor review the radon measurement results
before beginning and radon-reduction work. Test again after the radon mitigation work has been completed to confirm
that previous elevated levels have been reduced. EPA recommends that the test be conducted by an independent qualified
d. What Can a Qualified Radon-Reduction
Contractor Do for You?
A qualified radon-reduction (mitigation)
contractor should be able to:
- Review testing guidelines and measurement
results, and determine if additional measurements are needed;
- Evaluate the radon problem
and provide you with a detailed, written proposal on how radon levels will be lowered;
- Design a radon-reduction system;
- Install the system according to EPA standards,
or state or local codes; and
- Make sure the finished system effectively reduces radon levels
to acceptable levels.
Choose a radon mitigation contractor to
fix your radon problem just as you would for any other home repair. You may want to get more than one estimate, ask
for and check their references. Make sure the person you hire is qualified to install a mitigation system. Some
states regulate or certify radon mitigation services providers.
that a potential conflict of interest exists if the same person or firm performs the testing and installs the mitigation system.
Some states may require the homeowner to sign a waiver in such cases. If the same person or firm does the testing and
mitigation, make sure the testing is done in accordance with the Radon Testing Checklist. Contact your state radon office
for more information.
e. Radon in Water
The radon in your home's indoor air can come from two sources,
the soil or your water supply. Compared to radon entering your home through water, radon entering your home through
soil is a much larger risk. If you've tested for radon in air and have elevated radon levels and your water comes
from a private well, have your water tested. The devices and procedures for testing your home's water supply are
different from those used for measuring radon in air.
The radon in your water supply poses an inhalation risk and an ingestion risk. Research
has shown that your risk of lung cancer from breathing radon in air is much larger than your risk of stomach cancer from swallowing
water with radon in it. Most of your risk from radon in water comes from radon released into the air when water is used
for showering and other household purposes.
Radon in your home's
water in not usually a problem when its source is surface water. A radon in water problem is more likely when its source
is ground water, e.g., a private well or a public water supply system that uses ground water. Some public water systems
treat their water to reduce radon levels before it is delivered to your home. If you are concerned that radon may be
entering your home through the water and your water comes from a public water supply, contact your water supplier.
If you've tested your private well and have a radon in water problem,
it can be fixed. Your home's water supply can be treated in one of two ways. Point-of-entry treatment can effectively
remove radon from the water before it enters your home. Point-of-entry treatment usually employs either granular activated
carbon (GAC) filters or aeration devices. While GAC filters usually cost less than aeration devices, filters can collect
radioactivity and may require a special method of disposal. Point-of-use treatment devices remove radon from your water
at the tap, but only treat a small portion of the water you use, e.g., the water you drink. Point-of-use devices are
not effective in reducing the risk from breathing radon released into the air from all water used in the home.
For information on radon in water, testing and treatment, and existing or planned
radon in drinking water standards, or for general help, call EPA's Drinking Water Hotline at (800) 426-4791 or visit www.epa.gov/safewater/radon.html.
If your water comes from a private well, you can also contact your state radon office.
b. Radon Hotlines (Toll-Free)
EPA supports the following hotlines to best serve consumers with radon-related
questions and concerns.
- 1-800-SOS-RADON (767-7236).
Radon Hotline, operated
by the National Safety Council (NSC) in partnership with EPA. Order radon test kits by phone.
- 1-800-55RADON (557-2366). For live help with your radon questions. Operated by the National
Safety Council (NSC) in partnership with EPA.
- 1-800-644-6999. Radon Fix-it Hotline,
operated by the Consumer Federation of America Foundation (CFAF) in partnership with EPA. For help with your radon mitigation
- 1-800-725-8312. A Spanish (Español) language
radon hotline, operated by the National Alliance for Hispanic Health (the Alliance) in partnership with EPA. For general
help with radon, testing, and mitigation questions, and free test kits.
1-800-438-4318. The Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Information Clearinghouse is privately operated under contract to EPA. You can
order copies of EPA consumer-oriented radon publications and get general information on radon and indoor air quality issues.
- 1-800-426-4791. Safe Drinking Water Hotline, privately operated under contract
to EPA. For general information on drinking water, radon in water, testing and treatment, and radon drinking water standards.
SURGEON GENERAL HEALTH ADVISORY
"Indoor radon gas is a national health problem. Radon causes thousands of deaths each
year. Millions of homes have elevated radon levels. Homes should be tested for radon. When elevated levels
are confirmed, the problem should be corrected."